25 September 2010

Komplikasi Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) dengan karakteristik hiperglikemia (kadar gula darah tinggi) dapat mengakibatkan berbagai macam komplikasi berupa komplikasi akut (yang terjadi secara mendadak) dan komplikasi kronis (yang terjadi secara menahun).

Komplikasi akut dapat berupa :

1.Hipoglikemia yaitu menurunnya kadar gula darah < 60 mg/dl

2.Keto Asidosis Diabetika (KAD) yaitu DM dengan asidosis metabolic dan hiperketogenesis

3.Koma Lakto Asidosis yaitu penurunan kesadaran hipoksia yang ditimbulkan oleh hiperlaktatemia.

4.Koma Hiperosmolar Non Ketotik, gejala sama dengan no 2 dan 3 hanya saja tidak ada hiperketogenesis dan hiperlaktatemia.

Komplikasi kronis :

Biasanya terjadi pada penderita DM yang tidak terkontrol dalam jangka waktu kurang lebih 5 tahun. Dapat dibagi berdasarkan pembuluh darah serta persarafan yang kena atau berdasakan organ. Pembagian secara sederhana sebagai berikut :

1. Makroangiopati, mengenai pembuluh darah besar (pembuluh darah yang dapat dilihat secara mikroskopis) antara lain pembuluh darah jantung / Penyakit Jantung Koroner, pembuluh darah otak /stroke, dan pembuluh darah tepi / Peripheral Artery Disease.

2. Mikroangiopati, mengenai pembuluh darah mikroskopis antara lain retinopati diabetika (mengenai retina mata) dan nefropati diabetika (mengenai ginjal).

3. Neuropati, mengenai saraf tepi. Penderita bisa mengeluh rasa pada kaki/tangan berkurang atau tebal pada kaki atau kaki terasa terbakar/bergetar sendiri.

Selain di atas, komplikasi kronis DM dapat dibagi berdasarkan organ yang terkena yaitu

1.Kulit : Furunkel, karbunkel, gatal, shinspot (dermopati diabetik: bercak hitam di kulit daerah tulang kering), necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (luka oval, kronik, tepi keputihan), selulitis ganggren,

2.Kepala/otak : stroke, dengan segala deficit neurologinya

3.Mata :Lensa cembung sewaktu hiperglikemia (myopia-reversibel,katarax irreversible), Glaukoma, perdarahan corpus vitreus, Retinopati DM (non proliperative, makulopati, proliferatif), N 2,3,6 (neuritis optika) & nerve centralis lain

4. Hidung : penciuman menurun

5.Mulut :mulut kering, ludah kental = verostamia diabetic, Lidah (tebal, rugae, gangguan rasa), ginggiva (edematus, merah tua, gingivitis, atropi), periodontium (makroangiopati periodontitis), gigi (caries dentis)

6.Jantung : Penyakit Jantung Koroner, Silent infarction 40% kr neuropati otonomik, kardiomiopati diabetika (Penyakit Jantung Diabetika)

7. Paru : mudah terjangkit Tuberculosis (TB) paru dengan berbagai komplikasinya.

8. Saluran Cerna : gastrointestinal (neuropati esofagus, gastroparese diabetikum (gastroparese diabeticum), gastroatropi, diare diabetic)

9. Ginjal dan saluran kencing : neuropati diabetik, sindroma kiemmelstiel Wilson, pielonefritis, necrotizing pappilitis, Diabetic Neurogenic Vesical Disfunction, infeksi saluran kencing, disfungsi ereksi/ impotensi, vulvitis.

10. Saraf : Perifer: parestesia, anestesia, gloves neuropati, stocking, neuropati, kramp

11. Sendi : poliarthritis

12. Kaki diabetika (diabetic foot), merupakan kombinasi makroangiopati, mikroangopati, neuropati dan infeksi pada kaki.

Tulisan yang Berhubungan



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